Dissecting car Engine Basic Parts and Functions

Dissecting car Engine
Dissecting car Engine

Dissecting car Engine Basic Parts and Functions

Hey readers today is share of some knowledge of a car engine and basic parts and their functions.

Dissecting car Engine

hi there car guy here today we are going

to cover the basics the basic parts of

an engine I get a lot of requests on

engines and how they’re put together and

what the little parts are on the inside

and what they do I plan to cover that

today I’m not necessarily going to get

into a lot of theory but I have this

Integra engine which you may recognize

from the oil pressure article that it’s

just kind of sitting here and I’m just

kind of sitting here so rather than

sitting here I thought man

why don’t I think about those people

that watch my articles and give them

something that they asked for so let’s

give you something you asked for we’re

just gonna point and name the parts

how’s that first we’ll start with this

this is a motor

it’s a starter motor motor this is a 1.8

liter Honda engine it was in a 1990

acura integra it is not a motor it is an

engine of course if you use the word

motor yeah people are gonna know what

you’re talking about but technically you

would be wrong engine is actually short

for ingenious device motor is actually

something that represents an electrical

component so this is not technically a

motor this is an engine this is the

valve cover under the valve cover we

have the camshafts this is a dual

overhead cam engine not every engine

it’s designed this way there are lots

and lots of different engines designs

everything from these traditional

four-stroke types to let’s say the

rotary types that you might find in a

Mazda those are fun that engines start

down as a water pump with this dual

overhead cam system you have two cam

shafts each controlling a different

function this one is the exhaust

camshaft and this controls all of the

exhaust valves this is the intake

camshaft and it controls all of the

intake valves we know this is the in

tech because the intake manifold is on

this side and we can see the flow of air

into the engine we know this is the

exhaust side because these are the

exhaust valves and leads out to the

exhaust manifold of the engine this is a

camshaft or sometimes referred to as a

bump stick why bumps these are the cam

lobes now this really is everything

because this says how this engine is

gonna breathe this tells it when to open

the valves how long to keep the valves

open for and how far to open them that

is huge because that is like I said

directly proportional to how the engine

breathes so if you want to change an

engines behavior you want more

horsepower less horsepower you want more

torque you want more fuel economy all

these things come down to this guy right

here and they all have to happen at a

given time hence the reason we have

timing gears on them so that everything

works together while editing this I

believe I came up with an even better

analogy for a camshaft think of the

camshaft is a computer program a

mechanical computer program for the

engine so whenever you’re thinking of

camshafts think of them as mechanical

computer programs because they dictate

the behavior of the engine and how it

breathes these cam lobes as they spin

around push onto these followers on this

particular

and in turn they opened the valves this

engine uses these followers so the

camshaft pushes on this which takes its

leverage from here and then pushes down

this is actually the valve this is an

exhaust valve so what this little thing

does it sits down inside of here and

every time the camshaft comes around it

pushes down on these thus opening the

exhaust valves you have them all the way

across for each one of the exhaust

valves on this this engine has two

valves per cylinder on the exhaust side

and two valves per cylinder on the

intake side it’s a four cylinder so four

times four is 16 so it’s a 16 valve dual

overhead cam engine once again lots of

different engine designs and a pushrod

engine you have lifters so you’ll have

either solid or hydraulic lifters

hydraulic lifters means that this guy’s

filled with oil and that this little

thing in the middle here will squish

down a little bit and these allow for

quieter operation of the engine but with

a solid valve train you actually have

more accurate valve timing because this

is like a squishy sponge a solid valve

train is exactly that it’s gonna open

the valve precisely these are not so

precise but mostly used in passenger

cars to keep you know this the service

is down because with solid valves you

have to adjust them periodically with

hydraulic lifters you do not this is a

push rod and a push rod sits inside of

that little cup there on the lifter and

every time the cam comes around I

realized this is not the cam for this

car but every time the cam comes around

what it does is it pushes up on that

lifter and it opens the valve it doesn’t

a kind of a roundabout way that’s why

overhead cam engines came about this is

the intake camshaft and this is the

exhaust if you look at the bumps they’re

a little different ones a little higher

than the other

maybe a little fatter but the point is

is these things are angled and put in

just the right position so that they can

activate the valves and we want to do

this once again so that we make the

engine breathe back of the intake

camshaft has that little slot that does

drives as a distributor so the

distributor is mechanically connected to

the camshaft so if the camshaft is out

of time the distributor is to keep that

in mind if you’re doing timing belts and

things aren’t running right afterwards

this is an old-school distributor and

this no rotor here but what this does is

this is mechanically connected to the

camshaft and driven by the king of shaft

and what it does is it transfers the

spark to each one of the cylinders as

the cylinder comes up on its compression

stroke so this is mechanically timed to

the engine via that gear which is in

many cases supplying to the camshaft

this is not the correct cam shadow but

this is what turns it so if you take one

of these out you have to make sure you

put it back in on the right place of

your engines not gonna run right this is

an old-school oil pump it bolts of the

block and there’s that little area right

in here that is driven by a long shaft

actually many times is R off the

distributor so the distributor in the

oil pump are often sort of tied together

by this rod that connects the two so the

camshaft also drives the oil pump

something to keep in mind so your

camshaft isn’t running and you don’t

have oil pressure you may have a problem

with the connection between these two

here we have the exhaust manifold

this is the dipstick for the oil goes

down into the oil pan each one of these

is a runner that comes out of each

cylinder so each cylinder has its own

runner they all collect inside of the

manifold things that collect things are

called manifolds you have the intake

manifold in the back and then you have

the exhaust manifold here these runners

are all the same length reason for this

is is as the engine runs it sends out

pulses on each cylinder individually at

different times and each pulse actually

helps draw out the next pulse from the

next cylinder so they all need to be the

same length so that each cylinder can

produce equal power you hear the term

equal length headers it’s kind of what

they’re talking about it’s something

that you need in the design of the

engine if not it won’t run smoothly so

you want all these pieces of metal no

matter how you bend them to be roughly

the same like when they reach the point

where they all come together there’s

your exhaust manifold you say all four

of those holes collect down into that

one big hole exhaust manifold in case

you were wondering if you take that plug

out it empties out the coolant inside

the block I feel like I should have

talked about this first

but the camshafts sit up here and keep

the top part of the engine in time the

crankshaft is down here and this keeps

the bottom half of the engine in time

and these things are normally connected

by a timing belt and the water pump

lives here which is driven by the timing

belt so and this this is the tension

it keeps tension on the belt but there’s

a belt that connects the crankshaft with

the camshafts it’s called the timing

belt because that’s what it does it

keeps the engine in time it keeps the

valves opening and closing in time with

the Pistons moving up and down which is

the crankshaft which we’re about to get

to the water pump of course moves water

throughout the engine other engines

this is an older v8 setup use a timing

chain and this upper big gear here would

be connected to the camshaft and a lower

one here will be connected to the

crankshaft and the reason this gear is

bigger for every one revolution of the

camshaft you have two revolutions of the

crankshaft and the reason for this is

it’s the four-stroke engine cycle so

it’s designed in such a way to where

every time the camshaft goes around once

the crankshaft has gone around twice

kind of cool huh you may also hear the

term double roller timing chain which

refers to this which is too changed put

together which is really stronger in

addition to that you might hear of gear

driven setups which are more accurate

but also noisy you can put these in

place of regular chains and some engines

are just gear driven from the start I’ve

seen a lot of diesels this way this is

the intake manifold just like the

exhaust manifold

it has different runners going into each

one of the cylinders that are all the

same length air comes in here goes down

through these runners each one of these

goes down through each one of these

runners into each corresponding cylinder

intake manifolds I’m not going to get

into the principles right now but intake

manifolds that have long narrower

runners are usually good for torque well

are made for low end torque

whereas likes a short runners that have

big and fat that is made for higher rpm

horsepower what happens with these long

narrow runners is they help increase the

velocity of the air going into the

cylinder and an on a naturally aspirated

engine it helps increase torque

conversely when these are big open areas

they allow the engine to draw in more

air and a higher rpm which in turn gives

it more power these cross here or all of

your fuel injectors anyway these little

fuel injectors sit underneath what is

called fuel rail which supplies

pressurized fuel behind the injectors

themselves

then what happens

is each one of these injectors will

spray into the individual cylinders at

the correct time according to computer

it uses all the different sensors on

there such as cam and crank sensors to

know exactly where the piston is to know

that the intake valve is open and each

one of these provides a little squirt so

in this case in the case of a

fuel-injected engine you have air all

the way to this point then fuel is added

at the last second

while the intake valve is open a

carbureted engine there’s air and fuel

in each one of these individual runners

going down into here this orange stuff

here is all gasket that’s the intake

gasket it seals well what would be EGR

here and coolant goes through here we’ll

check it out

there’s the valves these are the intake

valves and they’re both closed right now

because there’s no camshaft in there one

on that side and one on that side notice

how this darien here is all clean that’s

where the gasoline gets sprayed so the

air goes in the everyplace else is kind

of carving up the shape of this is very


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important because the air air moves like

liquid so you want it to flow and here

and as these valves open up into the

cylinder they allow that air and fuel to

pass into it and what you’re looking at

here at the top is actually the valve

guide and that’s the valve itself let’s

see if we can pop one of those out in a

minute and here is the exhaust side

which has kind of the same thing but

instead of stuff coming in stuff’s

coming out just at the beginning of your

exhaust system that brown crusty stuff

that’s burnt oil

this is the cylinder head between the

cylinder head and the block

you have the head gasket these are

dowels that guide where the head gasket

goes but this head gaskets just fine

there’s nothing wrong with it what

you’ll see here is the combustion

chamber or at least part of it these

come in all different shapes and sizes

some of you out there may be familiar

with the term Hemi which actually stands

for hemispherical this is what they call

this a Penta drew f– Penta roof design

but the hemisphere design is like the

inside of a sphere in here so this this

is spherical inside the combustion

chamber that’s where that term Hemi

comes from it’s hemispherical this I

believe is called a Penta roof design

because it goes up and comes down at a

sharp angle as you can see on each one

of these the design of this the angle of

these valves all these things weigh in

to how the engine performs every little

nuance every little measurement right

down to the thousandth of a millimeter

all of this comes into play with an

engine so engineers spend a great deal

of time designing the shape of this

designing how big these valves are going

to be everything else all to come

together so that the engine works within

a certain range certain parameters in

the case of an automotive engine they’re

trying to balance between fuel economy

and power it’s that simple it’s not an

easy thing to do but the people that are

good at it good for them this this is

the top of the valve this is the valve

spring and these are the keepers there’s

two of them that hold in the valve here

is your valve spring here’s the retainer

and these are the keepers but these

actually sit down inside of this groove

and they’re tapered as you can see

I have a taper to them fatter at the top

and they are at the bottom and they sit

down inside here and grab on to the top

of the valve so they sit in there and

because this hole is tapered they’re

wedged in and they just they just wedge

together and on the inside of these

keepers there’s a groove you see there

and that groove sits in the top of the

valve right here so that holds it all

together it seems kind of cheesy but it

stays together for the most part but

what I just removed here is an exhaust

valve and as you can see it’s kind of

crusty yeah a little bit of a little bit

of oil on it so that valve seal may have

been leaking a little bit but it’s

probably more likely that the rings on

this engine are worn out because it’s

got quite a few miles on it now the

shiny spot is called the seat or the

shiny spot of the valve is where the

valve contacts the valve seat which is

here that’s on the head so this area

here needs to seal against this area of

the valve whenever a valve job is done

this seat is cleaned up sometimes at

many different angles sometimes they

grind in the seat up to five different

angles five different sides of stones

but they have a special tool that fits

down in this valve guide and grinds this

hole in such a way to where it will seat

up against this valve sealing is very

important in an engine especially in the

combustion chamber any leaks cause

compression loss and any compression

loss causes power loss but that’s the

basics of how a valve stays inside of a

head held on there by keepers

now valve springs are also very

important because after the camshaft

compresses them and opens the valve it’s

the job of the valve spring to close the

valve again and it’s equally important

that the valve closes as efficiently as

it opens so valve springs are important

in that they need to be able to combat

the forces that are going against them

and they need to rapidly

re-expand to close the valve if not it’s

something called valve float to where

the spring or the the speed of the valve

overcomes the ability for the spring to

close the valve in fact right here is

probably the number one limiting factor

of rpm high rpm engines have really good

valve springs that are able to close the

valves once they’re open but you got to

think if something is moving at 10,000

revolutions per minute which is really

super fast if something is this spring

has to compress and decompress in that

amount of time which is milliseconds

it’s not able to keep up the stronger

these are the more stress that’s going

to put on the cam in the and the whole

valve train but the if they’re too weak

then what happens is they won’t be able

to close the valves and the valves will

stay open and if the valve stays open

then you lose compression you lose power

and it starts to miss and have issues

there now in this engine this is the

valve seal and these are positive type

valve seals meaning that they slip over

the top of the valve guide itself and

the valve guide is basically a metal

sleeve that this is sitting on top of

that the valve rides in and out of okay

here’s one of those valve seals and this

is referred to as a positive type valve

seal and the reason is is because it

positively locks on to the top of the

valve guide if you have bad valve seals

a lot of times it will suck the oil well

on the intake side mostly it will suck

the oil from inside the cylinder head

down inside the combustion chamber and

this is not a good thing these positive

type valve seals however are very good

at keeping the oil out some valve seals

are just what are called umbrella seals

and they just sit on the inside of the

valve and don’t make a positive seal

here at the valve stem they really look

like an umbrella to help keep this out

if a valve guide gets worn out and the

space between the valve guide and the

valve gets too big it will suck more oil

in there which will cause you to burn

more oil but I’m of the opinion that

most of the oil consumption actually

happens in the bottom of the engine

because that’s where most of the

pressure is let’s go there next all

right now let’s get a look at the

correct shaft by the way this is a

flywheel this is a manual transmission

so when you have a manual transmission

this is a weighted thing it’s called a

flywheel if this were an automatic

transmission this is a thin plate and

it’s referred to as a flex plate not a

flywheel fly wheels are on manual

transmissions flex plates are on

automatics this is a flex plate as you

can see it’s much thinner and lighter

but these are for automatic

transmissions the thick ones that are

heavy or flywheels this is referred to

as a flex plate so what does it look

like is your engine runs all I’m doing

is turning the flywheel 4-cylinder

engine fires every 180 degrees so as

both of these are up watch the

four-stroke engine cycle to see more

stuff on this but as both of these

pistons are up one of them is on the

compression stroke and about to fire and

go on the power stroke and the other is

on the exhaust stroke there’s something

called sister cylinders and it has to do

with the crankshaft design and the way

this whole system is set up that’s what

that means that’s why two of these are

always coming up at the same time same

with these metal two sister cylinders

cool huh

okay now let’s flip this guy or no

dumping oil all over the place that’s

worried let’s take the oil pan off this

is the oil pickup so as the engine runs

oil gets sucked up in here by the oil

pump which is this assembly on the front

of the crankshaft and it’s driven by the

crankshaft this metal plate is referred

to as a windage tray so and some of

these are actually designed to actually

scrape a small amount of oil off of the

crankshaft as it rotates to help it be

more efficient oil pickup a little

screen down in there something you know

can help keep out any big chunks I’m

getting sucked up in there but it goes

to the oil filter also it’s the reason

why you have it on there so there’s any

dirt or anything in here it should get

caught up by the oil filter or this

screen it could be said that this is

where the rubber meets the road because

in essence what an internal combustion

engine does is it turns the chemical

engine it turns the chemical energy

inside of the gasoline into mechanical

energy and that happens right here at

the crankshaft these are counter weights

these are connecting rods these are

directly connected to the Pistons in

fact we’re going to take one of those

Pistons out of here now

but as it rotates and with it with a

four-cylinder engine it’s hard to keep

it balanced so what they often do is

they have these harmonic balancers

there’s a little piece of rubber like it

is in between the inside and outside of

this pulley and the reason for that is

because every time a piston pushes down

and it causes this to rotate it creates

a pulse but that pulse pretty much ends

then it has to compress something so it

goes from accelerating to decelerating

accelerating to decelerating and this

creates pulses of power here at the

flywheel in the crankshaft to help even

that out so that it doesn’t shatter

itself because believe it or not those

pulses are not good for the metal parts

inside the engine this is called a

harmonic balancer or a damper because

that’s exactly what it does is this

helps dampen those accelerating and

decelerating forces that happen at the

crankshaft this guy right here is

actually more important than you might

think

this is what it looks like rotating from

below you got these the connecting rods

that are connecting to the Pistons

coming up and they’re all transferring

power to their respective journals and

transferring it here to the back of the

engine so when they say power at the

flywheel like 140 horses at the flywheel

this is what they mean that this has

enough twisting force horsepower is

actually derived from torque and torque

is a twisting force

so really torque tells you more about an

engine than anything else but torque it

quite smore torque equates to more

twisting force more of the engines

ability to push down bigger cylinders

and other factors contribute to an

engine that can have more torque

camshaft design being one of them I’m

not gonna take the crankshaft out and

I’m sorry to say but I will this is the

your last thing I’m really I’m gonna

take one of the connecting rods out and

here is the bearing cap you might

remember this from the oil pressure
article and bearing is lookin so great but

see the bearings have these little tabs

on them and they fit down under these

little slots here on the caps so you

just slide and down into place like this

say they fit in there all nice this

journal right here has to be completely

round it’s really important it also has

to be nice and shiny and smooth because

this is where the power is transferred

you want it to happen smoothly

okay see a piston being born all right

tada

we have our hands hey mister this is the

hole that was left by the cylinder now

this normally should have a crosshatch

pattern on the inside of it because that

helps the Rings seal and the oil control

rings work but there is the crankshaft

journal now think of the crankshaft like

petals on a bicycle in each one of the

Pistons are like legs peddling the

crankshaft so it works in a very similar

way here is piston it’s fairly light

actually this one’s still nice and stiff

but that’s it for these that make up the

displacement so when you hear a 1.8

liter like in the case of this engine

that means the volume between all four

of these cylinders and pistons comes out

to be 1.8 liters of displacement that’s

how much air this displaces shiny spot

right here is called the skirt three

little grooves up here the first one

with a little wavy played in it that is

the oil control ring then you have to

compression rings you have this

compression ring and this compression

ring so an engine or a piston normally

has these two compression rings and an

oil control ring so when people say

they’re re-ring in the engine or putting

your rings in that’s what they’re

talking about as those piston rings

because these guys are the things that

seal against the inside of the cylinder

this right here is the wrist pin and

this allows the connecting rod which is

this part to pivot power is transferred

as this piston comes down to C it has to

change direction as it

moves up and down on the crankshaft a

little dents in the top for the valves

when they come down so sometimes the

valve is really that close when it opens

up and the piston is all the way up so

that’s what those little grooves are for

so the Pistons all the way up those

little valves come in like that and that

that’s pretty much your engine and then

there’s these little holes once again

remember the whole oil pressure thing

that has actually forced out this other

little hole which lubricates the bottom

of this area in here so this will squirt

up throw oil up under the bottom of the

piston which helps one keep it cool

because you got to think it’s really hot

on this side of the piston in the

combustion chamber it’s like over 2,000

degrees in some cases but they’re

getting rid of that heat with the

cooling system that’s why the cooling

system is so important and engine turns

the chemical energy from your gasoline

into mechanical energy here at the

piston and the crankshaft that’s what it

does

one of the really scary part it’s only

20% efficient 80% of the heat that’s

generated by the chemical energy of the

gasoline is lost through friction and

other things other loss of motion it’s

not very efficient to take a piston and

move it up and down three times in order

to get one thing of power out of it it’s

really not that efficient but the

internal combustion engine is not really

that great we’ve got it to a point where

it’s about as good as I think it’s gonna

be because we’ve got combustion down to

a science but still you can’t fight

physics at the end of the day this is an

extremely efficient what inefficient way

to make power it works

it’s common it’s cheap efficient no not

so much I’m gonna cover more specifics

of this stuff at some point time but

this once again just a general article

just a article to say these are the parts

inside the engine this is what they do

if I miss something or if you have

something to add feel free

and the comments but come on be nice so

are you out there kind of uptight I’m

here to learn just like you and I am

learning just like you but this is what

I know are the internal components of

the engine and how they work and I hope

this information was helpful to you you

comm or you can visit me at facebook and

twitter oh yeah and then I’m also doing

podcast on Sundays at noon Eastern

Standard Time which you can find a link

to that also on my website so feel free

to do all those things if you so desire

thank you for subscribing and if you

haven’t subscribed hey why not be safe

have fun and of course stay dirty see

you people

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